Most of us today don't even know what "weights and measures" are. Weights and measures were the standard by which precious metals were given value, thus establishing a means to pay for goods or services that equaled that "money". For example, I love gummy worms. If I were to use the old system of payment to buy a pound of gummies, valued at $3.00, I would have to shave off 0.00215 oz of gold (based on the price of gold at the time of this writing $1394.4/oz) and exchange it for my delectable treat. As long as the "measures" were accurate, I would have a fair deal. We don't have that today because of paper money. The difference in value between a $100 bill and a $1 bill is... here's the kicker... none. They weight the same, are the same size, even have about the same amount of ink on them. So what makes one more valuable than the other? The number inked on the paper. But who put that number on there? The government right? Nope... a private bank called the Federal Reserve Bank. Don't let the federal word in the name deceive you. Look it up.
So to the point: To have dishonest weights and measures that the Lord abhors (Proverbs 11:1) means to tamper with the perceived value of what should be an immovable standard of measurement. If the one weighing the gold uses a weight heavier than the value agreed upon, the buyer would pay more than the object bought is worth.
When something is rare, it has high value. When something is common, it's value goes down. A #2 pencil is not hard to find, thus making them a few cents. A signed Michael Jordan rookie card is probably worth a good chunk of money, because it's rare. So let's take our valueless paper money into account. It is dubbed by a private bank (whom our government gets it's loans from) to have a certain value. That same bank at any given moment prints an additional amount they desire. If I struck a deal with TOPPS, a sports card company, to print me ten more MJ rookie cards and get them signed by MJ himself without anyone else knowing, I could sell those at the price of the original rare card. The problem is then those cards are less rare, thus decreasing the value of them all, even though I sold them at the "rarer" price. The Federal Reserve prints more money and spends it at current market value, but once that money is in circulation the value goes down. Does that count as dishonest weights and measure which our Lord abhors??? YES
When I was a kid gummies were $1.00 per pound. Now they are over $3.00 per pound and they're the same gummies. Seems pretty dishonest to me. Ironic how Biblical principles still hold true today. The founding fathers of America were not perfect men, but they used God's word as the foundation of the constitution and we prospered greatly under it until it was changed in 1913. God's word is timeless and true and get this: it works.
For more on this topic and for solutions read Leadershift by Orrin Woodward. Also, as these thoughts came to my mind and I looked up info I stumbled on a great post with similar thoughts here:
Our thoughts on Godly money and government interaction need to BEGIN AGAIN.